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Glossary of Terms

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A type of cancer that forms in the muscles or connective tissue such as bone and cartilage.


A sac of loose skin that lies directly below the penis and contains the testicles.


A new tumour that has developed distant from the original cancer.

Side effects

Secondary effects of drugs used for disease treatment.


The visual examination of the rectum and lower colon using a tubular instrument called a sigmoidoscope.


(also known as Ultrasound or Echography) A picture of the body's tissues built up by using high energy sound waves.

Sperm banking

The process of freezing sperm and storing it for later use in order to try and have children.


A part of the body found on the left side under the lower part of the rib cage. The spleen makes lymphocytes and other immune system cells to help fight infections. In certain diseases, the bone marrow may stop making blood cells. If that happens, the... more


A substance such as saliva, phlegm, or mucus coughed up from the respiratory tract.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Cancer arising from the skin or the surfaces of other structures, such as the mouth, cervix, or lungs.


Defining the extent of cancer in the body, the size, location and if it has spread.

Stem cells

Early blood cells which mature in an orderly process to produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.


A type of hormone.


An artificial opening between two cavities or between a cavity and the surface of the body.


Temporary inflammation and soreness of the mouth.